CHICAGO — Muscle-building” cookies, “refueling” smoothies and “satiating” breakfast foods often depend on protein to make such marketing claims — but not only any protein. Many food formulations are fueled by dairy proteins, namely whey, in considered one of its many formats.
The alternative of protein is a vital marketing tool of the product’s “power.” Unfortunately, marketers are limited in how they could communicate this because regulators have put the subject of protein quality and availability on the backburner. Some argue it’s time to bring it back into the conversation.
“As headlines proliferate around the necessity to provide protein to an ever-growing global population, the common argument has emerged that individuals world wide are already consuming greater than they need,” said Paul Moughan, distinguished professor at Massey University and a fellow laureate of the Riddet Institute, Fitzherbert Palmerston North, Latest Zealand. “While this will indeed be true by way of total protein, it’s unfortunately not the case in the case of their intake of obtainable protein.
“A baby in India, for instance, could also be consuming a weight loss program that’s heavily based on cereals and root crops. The kid could also be getting loads of protein but could still be heavily deficient in available protein and key amino acids. This deficiency can result in stunted growth during childhood and end in them never fulfilling their true potential.”
Currently the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Rating (PDCAAS) is used to evaluate the standard of all protein. The rating is an adjustment for the standard of the protein. It relies on the categories and amounts of amino acids within the food in addition to the general digestibility. The PDCAAS values range from 0.0 to 1.0, where values are truncated to a maximum rating of 1.00, which cow’s milk, casein, whey, eggs and soy protein all possess. Most plant protein sources have much lower values.
Dr. Moughan, and other protein authorities, consider Digestible Indispensable Amino Acid Rating (DIAAS) is a greater reference point. The DIASS evaluation enables the differentiation of protein sources by their ability to provide amino acids to be used by the human body. It also demonstrates the upper bioavailability of dairy proteins when put next to plant-based protein sources.
“I feel DIAAS is a technique that gives a measure of protein quality that reflects the true digestibility of a protein,” said Kimberlee Burrington, vp of technical development, American Dairy Products Institute, Elmhurst, In poor health. “I feel it could boost dairy’s fame as a high-quality protein, but to be truthful, we haven’t done one of the best job communicating that even with the high PDCAAS values for dairy protein.
“Consumer research shows most consumers aren’t aware of, or aren’t able to tell apart, that proteins have differences in protein quality. We use the Nutrition Facts panel to speak the grams per serving of protein, however the only method to show a difference in protein quality is by utilizing the % Day by day Value.”
The % Day by day Value for protein is decided using PDCAAS. A yogurt containing 10 grams of milk protein may make an “excellent source of protein” claim. A cultured vegan product with 10 grams of protein from peas and nuts more than likely only qualifies for a “good source of protein” claim, and when doing so, shouldn’t flag 10 grams of protein per serving, because it is misleading. When making or implying any protein content claim, the Food and Drug Administration requires the inclusion of the % Day by day Value.
“Most products that don’t claim anything in regards to the level of protein on the product is not going to show anything within the % Day by day Value column,” Ms. Burrington said.
If DIAAS were put into place, products containing whey proteins would find a way to higher communicate their value. Unfortunately, it’s been 10 years since a report from the Expert Consultation of the Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations (FAO) advisable using DIAAS, yet it has not been implemented.
Data within the FAO report showed whole milk powder to have a DIAAS rating of 1.22, far superior to the DIAAS rating of 0.64 for peas and 0.40 for wheat. In comparison to the best refined soy isolate, dairy protein DIAAS scores were 10% to 30% higher.
Dairy proteins have a high DIAAS rating due to presence of branched-chain amino acids, which help stimulate muscle protein synthesis. Each dairy protein has more branched-chain amino acids than egg, meat, soy and wheat proteins. Whey protein, specifically, is seen as higher quality due to presence of leucine, a branched-chain amino acid accountable for muscle synthesis.
“We strongly support adaptation of DIAAS for measuring protein quality,” said Peggy Ponce, director of product innovation for Agropur, which has US offices in Minneapolis. “Foods and beverages are being marketed by highlighting the ‘grams of protein’ with out a meaningful comparison of the protein quality. Once DIAAS is widely accepted, product developers can discern the dietary value of proteins in formulations, which is able to lead to higher consumer decisions of protein-fortified foods and beverages. Consumer education will probably be a critical part of constructing sure they understand the high dietary quality of proteins from milk and whey.”
What’s holding up the implementation of DIAAS? While there are some within the plant-based community who oppose DIAAS, one of the vital significant holdups is the event and implementation of a protein database.
The Riddet Institute led a research program to deal with the availability of protein for human diets. This system is funded by a consortium of business food organizations through the Global Dairy Platform.
The primary stage has been accomplished. This stage was a collaboration between the Riddet Institute, Wageningen University in The Netherlands, the University of Illinois Urbana – Champaign and AgroParisTech in France. The researchers developed, standardized and validated methods based on the growing population to find out the digestibility of amino acids for human foods. The methods were applied in several laboratories in several parts of the world and achieved consistent results, Dr. Moughan said.
They now are working with Wageningen University and the University of Illinois to look at the digestibility of diverse protein sources in a form consumed by humans using DIAAS. An openly available global database of protein quality will probably be constructed, including 100 different protein sources. The protein sources will probably be from a wide variety of various protein types, including protein sources commonly consumed in developing countries.