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Baseline Gut Microbes Can Predict Your Diet Outcomes | Shin



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Two individuals following the identical weight loss plan don’t necessarily achieve the identical weight reduction results. “There is no such thing as a universal weight loss plan” is a typical adage. While the explanations are personalized and beyond measurable by research, one reason is the composition (or profile or enterotype) of the person’s gut microbiota.

Lars Christensen, Ph.D., and his team from the University of Copenhagen, Denmark published their findings within the Journal of Nutrition a number of months back. They randomized 75 obese adults into one in every of the three diets for six weeks: WG wheat, WG rye, or RW (WG, whole grain; RW, refined wheat). Participants weren’t told to limit their calories.

As has been well replicated by many studies, those following the high-fiber WG diets lost more weight than the RW weight loss plan. More importantly, adults with a better baseline abundance of Prevotella species of their gut lost 4 kilos while those with lower abundance didn’t lose any weight, following the identical WG weight loss plan. Adding more fiber with none calorie restriction can result in weight reduction in individuals, but only in those with a selected gut enterotype.

The identical Denmark laboratory also published the same clinical trial within the International Journal of Obesity in 2018. Herein they showed that adults with high Prevotella abundance lost 7 kilos of body fat on a 26–week Recent Nordic Diet (high in whole-grain/fiber) than the usual Danish weight loss plan. Unfortunately, no fat loss was observed in those with a low baseline abundance of Provetella species on the Recent Nordic Diet.

In the identical 12 months, one other study published within the International Journal of Obesity recruited 80 obese adults for a 24-week, 500-kcal deficit weight loss plan (30% fat, 52% carb, 18% protein). They found that participants with high gut Prevotella levels at baseline lost more body weight (22 vs 13.5 kilos) and body fat (19.8 vs 11.4 kilos) than those with low Prevotella abundance.

In brief, these three studies showed that high-carb, high-fiber diets work higher for weight management and fat loss in individuals with Prevotella enterotype but not Bacteroides enterotype.

Dr. Christensen, thus, proposed “microbial enterotypes as promising biomarkers in personalized nutrition for obesity management.” He also suggested that the “key to effective weight reduction requires a match between weight loss plan and gut microbiota.”

The gut enterotype (or ecosystem) comprises two groups, either a Prevotella- or Bacteroides-dominant. The previous is linked to a long-term high-fiber, high-carb weight loss plan typically seen in agrarian societies. The Bacteroides enterotype is closely related to a westernized, high-fat, high-protein weight loss plan.

The Ruminococcus, Bifidobacterium, and Enterococcaceaeenterotype enterotypes were classified later, though our understanding of them stays limited.

Gut enterotypes are relatively stable throughout life. They’re persistent and don’t easily shift from one enterotype to the opposite, despite dietary changes. This explains why the high-fibre weight loss plan for over 6-months didn’t change the Prevoltella abundance in those with low Prevotella counts at baseline within the Denmark study above. In fact, exceptions exist and a few individuals manage to shift their gut enterotype with dietary practices.

This also explains why the ketogenic weight loss plan (higher in fat) reversed obesity in a detailed friend of mine and kept it off until now (~4 years). The vegetarian weight loss plan or the high-carb, low-fat weight loss plan didn’t work. Actually, my friend had been miserable with each those diets for months. Perhaps his gut microbiota resembles the Bacteroides or other enterotypes, with a low abundance of Prevotella species. As Dr. Christensen said, “effective weight reduction requires a match between weight loss plan and gut microbiota.”

What determines gut enterotypes? There is no such thing as a straightforward answer. It might be an equation considering multifactorial elements comparable to genes, sleep patterns, dietary habits, physical activities, mode of infant delivery, childhood antibiotic usage, age, underlying medical conditions and drug usage, and even realms. While some aspects are in our control, most don’t.

As Sarkis Mazmanian, professor of microbiology at Cal Tech and one in every of the pioneers in gut microbiome research puts it: “The assertion that an organization can inform you what weight loss plan to eat to ‘fix’ your microbiome is just junk. There is no such thing as a way that anyone has enough information to give you the chance to reshape your microbiome in a meaningful and healthy way, that’s tailored to you.

We have now no idea what healthy even is, so far as the microbiome is worried and, since my microbiome configuration relies on my genetics, weight loss plan, and life experiences, healthy for me is completely different from healthy for you.”

It made sense that a ‘healthy weight loss plan’ can also be variable between individuals. It isn’t any wonder that some have a tougher time controlling their weight and weight loss plan than others. And why some diets work magically for a certain subset of the population.

“General weight-reduction plan schemes often lead to failure and disappointment at the non-public level and a relentless increase within the incidence of obesity and the metabolic pandemic on the population level,” writes Niv Zmora et al. from Weizmann Institute of Science, Israel of their 2018 publication in Nature Gastroenterology & Hepatology Reviews.

They’ve also made an eye-opening remark that “The evident interrelationships between weight loss plan and the microbiota … might reconcile a few of the discrepancies which were troubling nutrition researchers and will explain a few of the previously unintelligible variability encountered within the response to weight loss plan, at times observed in apparently similar conditions.”

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